THE THEEE SUCCESSIVE SITES OF THE CITY. 125 The hill known as the KLans ka Tila just outside the south5 or, as it is called, the Holi Gate of the city, is supposed to be the one from the summit of which the tyrant of that name was tumbled down by Krishna. General Cunningham suggests that this might be one of the seven great stiipas mentioned by the Chinese pilgrims, and adds that on the north of the city there are two hills still bearing the names of Anand and Vinayaka, titles which they specify. But in this it appears that he was misinformed, as no such localities can be traced. Of the hills to the north of Mathura, the most conspicuous are the Kailas and Mahal* or Jaysinhpura khera, sometimes called the Ganes from the Ghat of that name which is immediately below it. An Anant tirthaj easily to be confounded with Anand, is noted in the Mathura Mahatmya ; and the fact that Vinayaka, besides its Buddhist meaning, is also an epithet of Ganes, may have given rise to an error in the other name. The Elans ka Tila certainly appears to be pri- marily of natural formation and hence to have been selected as the river boundary of the old city wall. The whole country^ indeed, has been broken up into heights and hollows of indefinite number and extent: but most ancient Buddhist sites must be looked for at a greater distance from the river and out- side the modern city, in what is now open country at the back of the katra, and in the direction of Maholi, the ancient Madhu-puri, where the aboriginal Madhu held his court. Subsequently to his defeat, the Aryan city was built in thİ neighbourhood of the present Katra and the temple of Bhutesvar; and, being £he seat of the new Government, it appropriated in a special way the name which formerly had denoted, not the capital, but the whole extent of territory. This view is confirmed by observing that, philologicallyj * Mathura1 appears a more fitting name for a country than for a city, and one that could be applied to the latter only inferentklly. The present city is the third in order and has for its centre the Fort; as the second had the tempiİ of Bhutesvar, and the first the grove of Mftdhn-ban. Thus, speaking generally, the further wİ move back from the city in thİ direction of Maaoli, the İMet mil probably bİ the date of any antiquities that may be discovered. * So called from & dwelling-house last- was balls there bj Skwae Jay Sioh.